A prospective randomized study of clinical efficacy of recombinant interferon-α2b in combination with vitamins E and C (VIFERON®) in the complex treatment of congenital and postnatal pneumonia was conducted in 60 premature infants of gestational age from 29 to 34 weeks. In addition to the standard antibacterial, infusion, and metabolic therapy, children of the main group (30 patients) received 150 000 IU of the drug 3 times a day for 10 days. Patients in the control group comparable in gestational age and clinical status (30 children) received only standard therapy. The study revealed that inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy contributes to a more rapid improvement of the clinical condition, the cure of infectious toxicosis and respiratory failure, especially significant by the 5th day of therapy, contributes to a more rapid elimination of pneumonic infiltration according to lungs radiography, reduces hospital stay. © 2019, Pediatria Ltd.. All rights reserved.