The objective. To study the incidence of IDA in pregnant women depending on the term of delivery and to improve the reproductive health of women with uterine myoma in the pregravid period due to early diagnosis and treatment of IDA. Patients and methods. We examined 132 pregnant women, who were retrospectively divided into three groups: group 1 - women with preterm labour (PL) at the term of gestation 22 to 27 wks (n = 34); group 2 - patients, who gave birth prematurely at the term of gestation 28-37 wks (n = 56) and group 3 - women with full-term labour (FL), who comprised the control group (n = 42). We also carried out a prospective examination of 292 patients with uterine myoma. Results. In the first trimester, among pregnant women IDA was found in 6 (17.6%) with very preterm labour and in 6 (10.7%) with PL at the term 28-37 wks. In the second trimester, mild IDA was diagnosed in 8 (23.5%) women, who gave birth at term 22-27 wks, and in 12 (21.4%), who gave birth at term 28-37 wks, and also in 3 (7.1%) women of the control group (p < 0.05). In the third trimester, mild anaemia was observed in patients from group 2 by 7.4 times more often than in the control group. Examination of patients with myoma at the stage of pregravid preparation found mild to moderate IDA with equal frequency in 158 women with myomas, they were prescribed ferrous (84 (28.8%) women) and ferric iron formulations (50 (17.1%)). In all women with mild anaemia, fast normalization of red blood cell indices was achieved. In moderate anaemia, normalization of indices was achieved in 8 (10.1%) of 79 women, in 71 (89.9%) anaemia could not be cured due to profuse uterine bleeding. In these patients, surgery was performed against the background of uncompensated red blood cell indices. Conclusion. Early prescription of iron hydroxide polymaltose complex formulations in patients with myomas and IDA is justified during pregravid preparation.